It was already stated that every person belongs primarily to some type of personality and all people can be divided, of course, quite arbitrarily, into different types. For example, most people, before answering an important question, will first look either to the left or to the right and then answer.
Consequently, all people can be divided according to this feature – into those. who looks to the left before answering, and to those to the right. But this. of course, joke. The same. as the division of people into those. who wears a hat in winter and who does without it.
People differ from each other to sheaves of inclinations, aspirations, ways of solving life tasks. C. Jung gave an example of how people act differently, going up to a ditch through which there is no bridge, but you can jump over. Each individual has his own characteristic way to make decisions and get out of difficulties. One jumped and said that he likes to jump, another will say that he had no other opportunity, the third – that he always wants to overcome difficulties, the fourth did not jump because he does not tolerate useless efforts, the fifth – because there was no urgent need get over to the other side. Each person has a pre-developed mental decision-making scheme, and the number of such schemes and attitudes is enormous. “Their individual diversity cannot be exhausted as well. how inexhaustible are individual variations of crystals, which, beyond doubt, belong, however. to one or another system. But also. as crystals point to relatively simple basic laws, so do installations point to certain basic properties inherent in certain groups. ”
Attempts to create a typology of man are rooted in antiquity. At first, as Jung believed. it was the astrology of the ancient East; ”and her doctrine of the so-called Tritons of the four elements – air, water, earth, and fire. Air Triton consisted of three zodiac air signs – Aquarius. Gemini and Libra: Triton of Fire – from Aries. Leo and Sagittarius. One who was born in these trigons. possessed aerial or fiery nature, and this. in turn, determined the appropriate temperament and fate.
From these ancient astrological beliefs flowed and the attempt to classify personality types, undertaken by the Greek physician Claudius Galen. who lived in the II. and. e. Exploring people, he showed that they all are divided according to their temperament into four types: choleric, sanguine. phlegmatic and melancholic. That what was previously explained by the zodiac constellations, now the flock is expressed in phiologic language This typology persisted until 1800. Astrological typologies are still popular and are even experiencing new flourishing today.
In antiquity, people were divided into gili koi (physical type), psychic (mental) and inejsh.chgnko “(spiritual.” Already at the birth of a man, it was decided whether or not he lived in horny or pneumatic condition).
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlo spoke about two pіnakh – scientific and artisanal. The first is a person who is nosobtige IMBII. He is self-absorbed, with difficulties to meet new people. The artistic type is the exact opposite of the scientific grease: sociable, bright, emotional, he is a friend to everyone, and all his friends. The first type, indeed, it is most often found among scientists, and secondly, among ARTISTS, artists, in any person, whatever he does. You can find traits of one type or another. But in general, this is a fairly simplified division.
Another human classification was given by American psychology L. Sheldon. He divided all people into three types: cerebral (cerebrotoxic). muscular (somatic) and gastric (visieratonnk). The cerebral type is a person living solely by the head, the intellect. He has a constant need for loneliness, restraint, a certain stiffness and tension of behavior and at the same time a quick response to a change in the situation. Since childhood, this is a frail, physically underdeveloped child, an excellent pupil at school, all the time solving some puzzling tasks, closed, shy, but proud of his achievements.
A muscular type is a person for whom the main thing is his body, he always goes in for sports, trains. He has a constant need for movement, he is active, energetic, wants to command others, to do something. In childhood he is, as a rule, studies poorly, writes off puzzles from the brain and for this protects him.
Finally, for the gastric type, the main thing is food. He constantly thinks about food. he has pies or sandwiches in his briefcase and oily notebooks all the time. As an adult, he prepares writing himself, does not trust his wife. he is a gourmet and knows thousands of recipes for cooking all kinds of dishes. He always has a good mood, good digestion, relaxed behavior, the need for contacts, the desire for harmony. This seems a rather humorous classification, although each person in himself or in his acquaintances may see a tendency towards one type or another.
Based on Sheldrn’s theory. German psychologist G. Ammelman built his typology of man. According to his point of view, all people are divided into three parts: motorized, elastic, and differential, which corresponds to the Sheldon muscular, gastric and cerebral type.
Motor type symbolizes the propensity to practice due to somatic orientation. It also manifests itself in the spiritual and spiritual sphere. Motor type is characterized by strength, energy, endurance, stability, initiative. You can recognize him, wrote Ammelman, on discipline, loud voice, certainty of movements and gestures. In the affairs he, as a rule, it is necessary only to be able to resist external influences. Such a person feels joy when he overcomes an obstacle, he strives to realize his shoals at all costs, cares little about planning his activities. He willingly gives orders and orders without listening to the opinions of others, rarely changes his mindset. A motor person, as a rule, is open, sociable, reliable and stable, he has a confident and carefree way to keep himself. At the same time, he is often rude, be (spiritual, he is too lazy to think long and seriously, he is quick-tempered, stubborn, stubborn.
An elastic person is always soft, compliant, there is no internal tension. He is relaxed, calm, flexible and pliable. His main need is to live in harmony with the outside world. He sees the main joy of life in that. to eat well, he is good at food and drink. likes to get comfortable, relax comfortably, chat with a good company. Igo activity is characterized by lethargy and slowness. In a dangerous situation, he waits and tries to avoid making a decision, always ready to go on a compromise. His negative features include a tendency to corpulence, sentimentality and talkativeness.
The differential type is always tense and closed, does not like to catch the eye, hates noise, stir, cry. He has a constant need for solitude and tranquility. Day of his great joy is to solve problems, especially theoretical. He sleeps a lot because his brain is tired of intellectual activity, but he sleeps restlessly, waking up from the slightest noise. He feels good where he can deal with complex tasks. Its disadvantages include cold intellectualism, omniscience, captiousness and pedantry.
Psychoanalysis tried to identify typological features based on the analysis of characters. Character is a product of compromise between the unconscious and the influence of the external environment. Knowledge of character makes it possible to predict the commandment of an individual, and also it shows a “true character”, differing from that facade, which the individual consciously, often most sincerely, shows us. One of the purposes of character is to hide the true character, so the classification serves not only as a card file, but also as a key.
Followers of Freud, based on his teachings, identified three types that could be related to the phases of sexual development in childhood: “oral”, “anal” and “genital”. According to Freud’s theory, the child goes through these three stages in its development: oral expression is expressed in sucking (mother’s finger or a finger) and in getting close to sexual pleasure from this, it’s like latent sexuality: the anal stage is the enjoyment of restraint and self excrement or their isolation: the last, the genital phase is characteristic of those that the child finally associates sexual satisfaction with the genitals. This is how any normal child develops, but there are abnormalities when mental fixation occurs in the earlier phases (or reduction to them), which continues in the next individual. Then these types, as noted by a follower of Freud E. Glover vary depending on that.
Gloyer Communicating, and developing Freud’s ideas on the typology of characters, singled out groups with classical forms of mental disorders, considering that such disorders are inherent in any person to one degree or another. All mankind, he believed. can be divided into hysterical, neurotic, depressive, alcoholic. hypochondriacal and. paranoid, schizoid and psychopathic types. Most people belong to this or that type only potentially, but in the case of a nervous breakdown they can fully manifest their neurosis, psychosis or psychopathy.
Eternally disturbed by something, but obviously playing to the public at the same time a woman whose whole life is an endless chain emotional breakdowns, mainly due to her own lack of balance; emotionally inhibited pedant who regulates his life with clear systems of obsessive rituals and schedules; devoured by inferiority complexes And actually !! the guilt of the unfortunate, silently silent about love, but doing everything. to be rejected; a wretched bastard, who every day makes a friendship with someone in a beer garden and by the time of its closure he discovers that “bosom friends” and the trace is gone; secret pianpia who can not get drunk; hypochondriac, immersed in the study of the metaphysical principles of the functioning of the digestive tract; vegeterian with a theosophical slant, placing in his closet bookcases with soul-saving literature; a transformer of the world, tirelessly whipping the vices of modern civilization, for which he can offer a faultless technique: the impenetrable narstssist facing inward. so preoccupied with finding God in one’s own unconscious ego. that he is forced to live in a public vacuum; absent-minded, though often endowed with outstanding mental abilities, stupid, who from the very moment he became a man, sows discord and disorder around himself – although in our description the characteristic features of these types are more accentuated. than in reaping life, they can be met everywhere, and their command in a crisis situation can be predicted almost from the standpoint of the situation. ”
A more serious and well-grounded division of people into different psychological types was given by the famous Swiss psychiatrist Charles I, Jung’s statute (1875–1% 1). One of his books is called Psychological Types. All people, according to Jung, are divided into two groups: extroverts and introverts. Moreover, this difference arises very early, so early. what. perhaps it has a hereditary nature. An extrovert is a person who is oriented outward, into the world. This is an open type: the introvert is oriented inward; it is an amkputy type. hidden person. An extrovert child adapts to the environment early, he is not afraid of any oysters and objects, he likes to play with them and through this he learns quickly. It is characterized by fearlessness, risk appetite, attractiveness of the whole unknown and unknown. At the same time, he is not very inclined to thoughtfulness, does not like loneliness.
An extrovert is characterized by responsiveness and interest in all external events: someone shouts in the yard or there is a war somewhere in the world — he is completely absorbed in this. He is able to endure clutter and noise of any kind, as he finds pleasure in it. He wants to be the center of attention all the time and even agrees to pretend to be a jester, if only he doesn’t remain a shadow. He makes many friends and acquaintances without much analysis, loves to run alongside some famous person in order to demonstrate himself. He has no secrets, he can not keep them for a long time, because everything is shared with others. He lives in others and for others and is afraid of any thoughts about himself. Extrovert considered Jung as if immersed in darkness. He hides his subjective beginning from himself under the cover of the unconscious. His unwillingness to subordinate his own motives to critical thinking is expressed very clearly in him. If he has a “complex”, he takes refuge in the social environment, in the confusion and allows him to be assured several times a day that everything is in order.
Introverts since childhood are thoughtful, shy, afraid of everything unknown, usually perceives external influences with strong resistance. The introverted child wants to do everything in its own way and does not follow the rules that it cannot understand. His real world is inner. He keeps himself away from external events; he feels uneasy when he finds himself among a large number of people; in large companies he feels lonely and lost. Such a person usually looks awkward, awkward, often deliberately restrained. Since he is darkly inaccessible, he is often offended. In his picture of the world there are few pink paints, he is supercritical and in any soup he will find hair. It is a pleasure for him to reflect on himself. His own world is a safe haven, a carefully guarded and fenced garden, closed to the public and hidden from prying eyes. Nevertheless, he often achieves great success in science, if he is able to overcome his complexes. “He surrounds himself with barbed wire of difficulty so tightly and impenetrably that, in the end, he himself prefers to do something than sit inside. It is opposed to the world by a carefully developed defense system composed of scrupulousness, pedantry, moderation and thrift, forethought, “high-lipped” accuracy and honesty, painful conscientiousness, politeness and open distrust ”.
But within each group there are differences.So, different introverts react differently to similar circumstances. The intellectual adapts to the world with the help of his intellect, and the boxer adapts with the help of his fists. Therefore, Jung and the quality of the criteria for discrimination within one type of installation took the corresponding mental functions: thinking, desiccation, feeling and intuition. Thus, in each installation there is a thinking, sensual, sensing and intuitive type.
Thus, we get eight basic options.
- thinker, who is interested in kopnepnpm more than facts, an arrogant theorist with dogmatic thinking deprived of emotions and intuition, not dull feelings, but sensitive to criticism;
- an extravagant thinker who professes a cult of facts, on the basis of which he is beaten to build theories, an intolerant fanatic, inclined to recruit supporters for himself;
- emotional introvert (feminine type), who evaluates everything based on emotions and reacts to everything with strong love or hostility, tactless and ignorant in the field of interpersonal relationships, every now and then getting into trouble;
- emotional extrovert (also feminine type), who identifies himself with others, is inclined to throw out his emotions in relations with the outside world, is gullible, loves to give an overestimation of everything, unable to think;
- sensual introvert – an irrational and unpredictable type, reacting to everything based on subjective experiences, sensationalist. projecting his unconscious fears onto the world;
- a sensual extrovert, experiencing a constant thirst for external irritations, which must change quickly so that he does not get bored, impatient, selfish, seeking pleasure;
- an intuitive introvert that cares little for external circumstances, is changeable and unreliable in relationships with others. perceiving the world through the prism of its collective unconscious; eight)
- an intuitive extrovert – hesitant, changeable, impulsive and self-confident, often mistaken in relationships, but an invaluable helper in trouble. “”
Consideration of the famous philosopher of the twentieth century George Gurdjieff about the feet and types of man is not without originality: the first type is a physical person, immersed in the sphere of direct material interests, never rising above the level of his simple existence; the second type is an emotional person, similar to a child, considering everything from the point of view of danger or safety, living primarily by emotions, not by reason, a person with insufficiently developed intelligence, who can do a lot, but due to underdevelopment of intelligence does not know what to do and why: the third type is an intellectual person, dry, rational, building an ordered world around him. the one who holds knowledge as the highest virtue, a person who knows a lot but can do little: The fourth type (to which Gurdjieff does not give a definite name) can be called the “man of the way”: it is the man himself who makes himself. man as a result of serious internal efforts, deep self-knowledge. such people are not created by nature, they are the result of their own inner transformation, such a person cannot live mechanically. reflexively not coming and consciousness, not feeling like LIVING: finally, the fifth rot is the man himself, he has reached •• kryngaggszatsmi ”. a hundred і complete harmonious person to whom the philosophical an grano.ktsch about siitt pі ch.shchikawithout feeling LIVING. He lives in full, objective consciousness, he organizes his life himself, he knows a lot and can do a lot (according to Gurzhiyev, there are very few such people, but with such personalities could change life on Earth- “.
This typology Guryazhiev demonstrates the example of attitudes towards Christianity. The first gri types are very far from true Christianity. as well as from the true truths of any religion in general. they are content only with external imitation. And their faith is not based on anything, they do not even suspect the deepest meaning of the Christian sacraments. Only a person on the path has the desire to become a Christian, only he understands that desire alone is not enough, that deep internal change is needed, and only a person of the fifth type, who has achieved inner perfection, can call himself a Christian. because only he can live according to the commandments of Christ.
In our opinion, most typologies relate primarily to the physical, not spiritual qualities of a person. Hence, ix relativity and uncertainty. True, the above authors themselves believed that in their pure form there are no types, and a person can be attributed to any type only conditionally, according to the character’s inclination. In general, it seems to us that belonging to one or another type more or less clearly can manifest itself only in childhood. A person of a developed spiritual and spiritual life can level, nullify all the one-sidedness of his character and psyche. It is hardly possible to say with certainty what type Kant and Descartes belonged to. Nisha OR Freud. Even if in the behavior of Kant or Descartes came to the fore introductory beginning. it was not expressed in any significant way in their work.You can often see people of a pronounced “motor” or “partly” type, engaged in intense intellectual activity. or a person who is externally related to the differential type, but internally inept and inactive. It seems to us that it would be appropriate to give the following example: in a country where there are many dialects. local reprimands, the intelligentsia of all regions speaks the same way – in the correct literary language, overcoming even in youth the peculiarities of local dialects and adverbs. In the same sense, a person is spiritually significant to the extent that he has overcome his typological limitations.
In his character, behavior, and writings, human features appear more clearly and more fully.overcoming Yeshe in his youth, features of local dialects and adverbs. In the same sense, a person is spiritually significant to the extent that he has overcome his typological limitations. In his character, behavior, and labors, human characteristics appear more clearly and more fully.overcoming Yeshe in his youth, features of local dialects and adverbs. In the same sense, a person is spiritually significant to the extent that he has overcome his typological limitations. In his character, behavior, and writings, human features appear more clearly and more fully.